18.1660 The Collapse

'The Collapse'

337 May 22, death of Constantine the Great

337 Division of the empire between Constantine's three sons: Constantine II (west), Constans (middle), Constantius (east). Execution of all other princes of royal blood, but for the children Gallus and Julian.

338 Constantius attends to the war against Persia. First unsuccessful siege of Nisibis by Sapor II

340 Constans and Constantine II at war. Battle of Aquileia; death of Constantine II.

344 Persian victory at Singara

346 Second unsuccessful siege of Nisibis by Sapor II

350 Third siege of Nisibis. Owing to incursions of the Massagetae in Transoxiana, Sapor II makes truce with Constantius.
Magnentius murders Constans and becomes emperor in the west. Vetranio proclaimed emperor on the Danube frontier. On appearance of Constantius, Vetranio resumes allegiance.

351 Magnetnius defeated at the very bloody Battle of Mursa. Misrule by Gallus, left as Caesar in the east.

352 Italy recovered. Magnentius in Gaul.

353 Final defeat and death of Magnentius

354 Execution of Gallus. Julian at Athens

356 Julian dispatched as Caesar to Gaul. War with teh Alemanni, Quadi and Sarmatians. Military achievements by Julian.

357 Challenge by Sapor II

359 Sapor II invades Mesopotamia. Constantius goes to the east.

360 The Gallic army forces Julian to revolt. Julian marches down the Danube to Moesia.

361 Constantius dies. Julian the Apostate emperor.

362 Christians forbidden to teach. Julian's advance against Persians

363 Disaster and death of Julian. Retreat of the army which proclaims Jovian emperor. Humiliating peace with Persia. Renewed toleration decree.

364 Jovian nominates Valentinian and dies.
Valentinian associates his brother Valens as eastern emperor and takes the west for himself. Permanent duality of the empire inaugurated.

366 Damasus pope. Social and political influences become a feature of papal elections.

367 Valentinian sends his son Gratian as Augustus to Gaul. Theodosius the elder in Britain.

368 War of Valens with Goths

369 Peace with Goths

369-377 Subjugation of Ostrogoths by Hun invasion

374 Pannonian War of Valentinian. Ambrose Bishop of Milan

375 Death of Valentinian. Accession of Gratian, who associates his infant brother Valentinian II at Milan. Gratian first emperor to refuse the office of Pontifex Maximus. Theodosius the elder in Africa.

376 Execution of elder and retirement of younger Theodosius.

377 Valens receives and settles Visigoths in Moesia.

378 Gratian defeats Alemanni. Rising of Visigoths. Valens killed at disaster at Adrianople.

380 Gratian nominates the younger Theodosius as successor to Valens.

382 Treaty of Theodosius with Visigoths

383 Revolt of Maximus in Britain. Flight and death of Gratian. Theodosius recognizes Maximus in the west and Valentinian II at Milan.

386 Revolt of Gildo in Africa

387 Theodosius crushes Maximus, makes Arbogast the Frank master of the soldiers to Valentinian II

392 Murder of Valentinian II. Arbogast sets up Eugenius.

394 Fall of Arbogast and Eugenius. Theodosius makes his younger son Honorius western Augustus, with the Vandal Stilicho master of the soldiers.

395 Theodosius dies. Arcadius and Honorius emperors.

396 Alaric the Visigoth overruns Balkan peninsula.

397 Alaric checked by Stilicho, is given Illyria.

398 Suppression of Gildo in Afrca

402 Alaric invades Italy, checked by Stilicho

403 Alaric retires after defeat at Pollentia.
Ravenna becomes imperial headquarters.

404 Martyrdom of Telemachus ends gladiatorial shows.

405-406 German band under Radagaesus invades Italy but is defeated at Faesula

406/407 Alans, Sueves and Vandals invade Gaul

407 Revolt of Constantine III who withdraws the troops from Britain to set up a Gallic empire

408 Honorius puts Stilicho to death
Theodosius II (aged 7) succeeds Arcadius.
Alaric invades Italy and puts rome to ransom

409 Alaric proclaims Attalus emperor.

410 Fall of Attalus. Alaric sacks Rome but dies.

411 Athaulf succeeds Alaric as King of the Visigoths.
Constantine III crushed by Constantius

412 Athaulf withdraws from Italy to Narbonne

413 Revolt and collapse of Heraclius

414 Athaulf attacks the barbarians in Spain Pulcheria regent for her brother Theodosius II

415 Wallia succeeds Athaulf

416 Constantius the patrician marries Placidia

417 Visigoths establish themselves in Aquitania

420 Ostrogoths settled in Pannonia 425 Honorius dies. Valentinian III emperor. Placidia regent.

427 Revolt of Boniface in Africa

429 The Vandals, invited by Boniface, migrate under Geiseric from Spain to Africa, which they proceed to conquer.

433 Aetius patrician in Italy

434 Rugila king of the Huns dies; Attila succeds.

439 Geiseric takes Carthage. Vandal fleet dominant.

440 Geiseric invades Sicily, but is bought off.

441 Attila crosses Danube and invades Thrace

443 Attila makes terms with Theodosius II. Burgundians settled in Gaul.

447 Attila's second invasion

449 Attila's second peace.

450 Marcian succeeds Theodosius II. Marcian stops Hun tribute.

451 Attila invades Gaul. Attila heavily defeated by Aetius and Theodoric I the Visigoth at Châlons

452 Attila invades Italy but spares Rome and retires

453 Attila dies. Theodoric II King of the Visigoths

454 Overthrow of the Hun power by the subjected barbarians at the Battle of Netad.
Murder of Aetius by Valentinian III

455 Murder of Valentinian III and death of Maximus, his murderer. Geiseric sacks Rome, carrying of Eudoxia. Avitus proclaimed emperor of the Visigoths

456 Domination of both east and west by the masters of the soldiers, Aspar the Alan and Ricimer the Sueve.

457 Ricimer deposes Avitus and makes Majorian emperor. Marcian dies. Aspar makes Leo emperor.

460 Destruction of Majorian's fleet off Cartagena.

461 Deposition and death of Majorian. Libius Severus emperor.

465 Libius Severus dies. Ricimer rules as patrician. Fall of Aspar.

466 Euric, King of the Visigoths, begins conquest of Spain.

467 Leo appoints Anthemius western emperor

468 Leo sends great expedition under Basiliscus to crush Geiseric, who destroys it.

472 Ricimer deposes Anthemius and set up Olybrius. Death of Ricimer and Olybrius.

473 Glycerius western emperor

474 Julius Nepos western emperor. Leo dies and is succeeded by his infant grandson Leo II. Leo II dies and is succeeded by Zeno the Isaurian

475 Romulus Augustus last western emperor.
Usurpation of Basiliscus at Constantinople. Zeno escapes to Asia. Theodoric the Amal becomes King of the Ostrogoths

476 Odoacer the Scirian, commander and elected King of the German troops in Italy, deposes Romulus Augustus and resolves to rule independently, but nominally as the viceroy of the Roman Augustus of Constantinople.
End of the western empire.